There is one famous passage where Hume likens moral discrimination to the perception of secondary qualities, such as color. Ancient Greek Sophists like Thrasymacus c.
The Rights Approach The Rights approach to ethics is another non-consequentialist approach which derives much of its current force from Kantian duty-based ethics, although it also has a history that dates back at least to the Stoics of Ancient Greece and Rome, and has another influential current which flows from work of the British empiricist philosopher John Locke The Consequentialist Framework In the Consequentialist framework, we focus on the future effects of the possible courses of action, considering the people who will be directly or indirectly affected.
Because Bentham and other utilitarians were interested in political groups and public policies, they often focused on discovering which actions and policies would maximize the well-being of the relevant group.
It is usual  to say that Mill is committing a number of fallacies.
This judgment, however, would be sound only if act utilitarianism were the only type of utilitarian theory. Lyons argues that at least some versions of rule utilitarianism collapse into act utilitarianism.
Utility ignores justice[ edit ] As Rosen  has pointed out, claiming that act utilitarians are not concerned about having rules is to set up a "straw man". While it may be true, it may also be false, and if it is false, then utilitarians must acknowledge that intentionally punishing an innocent person could sometimes be morally justified.
Your partnership is essential. We ask about what outcomes are desirable in a given situation, and consider ethical conduct to be whatever will achieve the best consequences.
This reduces the antipathy to the act in question. They argue that rule utilitarianism retains the virtues of a utilitarian moral theory but without the flaws of the act utilitarian version.
It says that we can produce more beneficial results by following rules than by always performing individual actions whose results are as beneficial as possible.
They simply tell drivers what to do or not do while driving.
The Feminist Approach In recent decades, the virtue approach to ethics has been supplemented and sometimes significantly revised by thinkers in the feminist tradition, who often emphasize the importance of the experiences of women and other marginalized groups to ethical deliberation.
We might say that having plastic surgery is ethically permissible, because it is not wrong to have the surgery it is not impermissiblebut neither is it ethically necessary obligatory to have the surgery.
First, they can argue that critics misinterpret act utilitarianism and mistakenly claim that it is committed to supporting the wrong answer to various moral questions. Cambridge University Press,— While rule utilitarians do not deny that there are people who are not trustworthy, they can claim that their moral code generally condemns violations of trust as wrongful acts.
Hume rejected the egoistic view of human nature. The stop sign is like the rule utilitarian approach. In Satisficing Consequentialism, Michael Slote argues for a form of utilitarianism where "an act might qualify as morally right through having good enough consequences, even though better consequences could have been produced.
Principia Ethica, Amherst, New York: Kagan suggests that such a procedure might be justified on the grounds that "a general requirement to promote the good would lack the motivational underpinning necessary for genuine moral requirements" and, secondly, that personal independence is necessary for the existence of commitments and close personal relations and that "the value of such commitments yields a positive reason for preserving within moral theory at least some moral independence for the personal point of view.
In like manner, I apprehend, the sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable, is that people do actually desire it… No reason can be given why the general happiness is desirable, except that each person, so far as he believes it to be attainable, desires his own happiness… we have not only all the proof which the case admits of, but all which it is possible to require, that happiness is a good: This approach stipulates that the best ethical action is that which protects the ethical rights of those who are affected by the action.
The three cases just discussed show why act utilitarianism undermines trust but rule utilitarianism does not.Contemporary Examples.
Is that a utilitarian approach—that you need to understand how institutions have changed to understand the way they are? Last time, we talked about the significance of shaping an ethical character and mindset. This allowed us to segue into the various ethical approaches or theories that provide the ethical building blocks you can use in your classroom to debrief any ethical dilemma.
Of course, every dilemma can be dissected using more than one approach, and thus, [ ]. The Utilitarian Approach Utilitarianism was conceived in the 19th century by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill to help legislators determine which laws were morally best. Both Bentham and Mill suggested that ethical actions are those that provide the greatest balance of good over evil.
The utilitarian approach to ethics -- and the limitations of this approach. His utilitarian leanings are distinct from his moral sense approach, and his overall sentimentalism. However, this approach highlights the move away from egoistic views of human nature — a trend picked up by Hutcheson and Hume, and later adopted by Mill in criticism of Bentham's version of utilitarianism.
Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral [ ].Download